Chlamydia is one of the most widespread sexually transmitted infections (STI) on the planet. While most people have heard of this STI, though, fewer understand that chlamydia is actually a name for a group of infections.
There are several different strains of chlamydia, one of which only affects swine and another that only Koala’s can be infected with. The strain of chlamydia that infects humans is comprised of a particular type of bacteria known as Chlamydia trachomatis. For this reason, the STI chlamydia may sometimes be referred to as chlamydia trachomatis.
In other words, chlamydia trachomatis is simply another name for chlamydia; it does not indicate a different version of the infection that requires a different style of treatment.
How is chlamydia trachomatis spread?
Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria live in the genital fluids of an infected person. When you come into contact with infected vaginal fluid or semen (cum or pre-cum), you put yourself at risk of infection.
Chlamydia infection is typically spread through unprotected vaginal, oral or anal sex. When infected vaginal fluid or semen enters the body, the C. trachomatis bacteria is carried with it. Most commonly, chlamydia trachomatis infection occurs in the genitals, but it can also infect the eyes e.g. carried on fingers from the genitalia) and rectum.
How can chlamydia trachomatis be avoided?
To prevent chlamydia trachomatis infection, you should take precautions when engaging in sexual activity. If you aren’t certain that your partner is free from chlamydia and other STIs, you should always use protection.
To avoid infection, condoms should always be used for penetrative sex. To lower the risk of spreading chlamydia during oral sex, you can also use condoms. Dental dams (thin, flexible, soft squares of plastic) can also be used to cover the genitals during oral sex.
If you use sex toys in the bedroom, be aware that chlamydia infection can be spread if you share these toys. To avoid spreading infected genital fluids, always wash sex toys between uses, or cover them with a fresh condom.
Chlamydia can also be transmitted simply through sexual contact such as rubbing of the genitals. However, you can’t get Chlamydia from kissing or hugging.
What are the symptoms of chlamydia trachomatis?
Chlamydia is widespread in part because it is often symptomless. It is thought that half of all men and 70% of all women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria suffer no symptoms. Not being aware that you are infected means you are more likely to spread it to other people. Suffering no symptoms may mean that you fail to receive treatment, which can increase your risk of developing serious complications.
People who do suffer symptoms as a result of chlamydia trachomatis will likely experience some of the following:
- Pain when passing urine
- Discomfort and/or discharge from the rectum
- In men, pain in the testicles
- In men, a white/cloudy discharge from the tip of the penis
- In women, pain in the abdomen and/or tummy and pelvis
- In women, bleeding between periods and/or after sex
- In women, heavier periods and/or bleeding in-between
- In women, pain when you have sex
When chlamydia trachomatis bacteria gets into the eyes, it can cause conjunctivitis (pain, redness and discharge).
If you notice these symptoms in your sexual partner you should avoid sexual contact until they’ve received advice and treatment. If you notice these symptoms in yourself, visit a doctor as soon as possible.
Be aware that untreated chlamydia can lead to serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, inflammation of the testicles and the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles, and sexually activated reactive arthritis. If these complications are not treated, they can lead to chronic pain and problems with fertility.
How is chlamydia trachomatis treated?
To receive treatment for chlamydia trachomatis, you should get tested. If your doctor suspects that you are high-risk for infection (e.g. you are experiencing symptoms or your partner has tested positive) they may give you treatment before your test results have come back.
Chlamydia trachomatis can be easily cleared up with a short course of antibiotics. Usually you will be prescribed azithromycin (taken in one dose) or doxycycline (taken over one to three weeks). The treatment that you receive depends on where chlamydia has been found and your symptoms. If you receive a diagnosis of chlamydia before it has caused other complications, and if you take your antibiotics correctly, you should be completely cleared of infection.
People who are sexually active and sleeping with new partners should aim to get tested regularly e.g. every 3 to 6 months. This applies even if you aren’t experiencing any symptoms. If you’ve had unprotected sex, have symptoms or think you may be at risk of an STI, you should seek medical advice from your local health clinic or GP.
To get tested for free visit a sexual health clinic, GUM clinic or GP surgery. You can also order a home test kit from a service such as LloydsPharmacy Online Doctor. Visit our Sexual Health Clinic to find out more.